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New Documentary Delves Into Dark Side Of Putin's Rise

By Tony Wesolowsky
December 30, 2015

ARussian filmmaker is urging viewers to share his new documentary focusing on the less savory side of President Vladimir Putin’s rise to power, hoping to reach the widest possible audience.
"I call on all viewers out there to download and distribute the video so viewing of it can’t be blocked," said Valery Balayan, the creator of Khuizmisterputin.
The film, chronicling Putin’s ascent from the St. Petersburg mayor’s office to the presidency, was premiered for media in the Ukrainian capital, Kyiv, on December 29. It comes on the heels of fresh reports detailing allegations of corruption and links to organized crime.
"My task was to make an informative and entertaining film, to explain some things to people in a clear way. To explain that Putin began his career with thievery -- only on the scale of Leningrad, St.Petersburg -- and that he hasn’t changed," said Balayan, who has made more than 60 documentary films and has worked for RFE/RL.
"A person doesn’t change, just develops. [Putin] has developed to such a degree that a corporation of [former KGB officers] and representatives of the criminal underworld has taken control of Russia," Balayan said.
The film's tongue-twister title is a Russian transliteration of "Who Is Mr. Putin?" but also includes a play on a vulgar Russian word for the male sexual organ.
Balayan said that, for the most part, filming went smoothly -- until he and his team went to Ozero (Lake), a dacha cooperative that Putin and a group of business, political, and security acquaintances founded in 1996.
Their presence there apparently raised alarm bells.
"What you see in the film is just the tip of the iceberg, because there were security guards everywhere. They took video of us, filmed the car I arrived in, its license plate. They were making calls, reporting something or other," Balayan said.
"So, the four of us working on the film decided not to recount anything from that incident so as to avoid any information leaks," he said. "We understood that our subject was such that it was better not to attract any attention. And we were able to keep it quiet despite the fact that our work took eight months."
The film begins in the 1990s when Putin, after 16 years serving in the KGB, had a short stint in the mayor’s office in St. Petersburg, his hometown. Balayan said that it explains the future president’s involvement in barter deals that, he said, appear to have lined the pockets of Putin and his associates while bringing little benefit to the city itself.
The film focuses on a 1991 deal in which previous accounts have accused Putin of understating prices and permitting the export of metals valued at $93 million in exchange for foreign food aid that never made it to shop shelves.
"The most well-developed bandit-bureaucrat criminal system [in Russia] was in St. Petersburg," local journalist Vladimir Ivanidze recounts in the film.
Suspicions of connections with organized crime have dogged Putin for years. Such charges, however, have gained fresh momentum in recent weeks.
In November, the Russian journal The New Times published a summary of the findings of a Spanish probe into Russian organized crime that includes claims reaching all the way to Putin himself.

With reporting by Dmitry Volchek of RFE/RL’s Russian Service

Russia: Millions in Global Drug Trade Profits Denounced

Moscow, Dec 16 (Prensa Latina) The barons of international drug trafficking invested about three billion dollars in the past 15 years to bolster the illicit drug trade in Afghanistan, Africa and Latin America, certified today the Russian Federal Drug Control Service.
The director of the agency, Viktor Ivanov, said during a panel on the transnational organized crime in the Latin American Institute of the Academy of Sciences, that the quantity of product and related investments is comparable to Russia's Gross Domestic Product in 2014, related to the purchasing power parity, amounting to about 3.5 billion dollars.
Ivanov identified two major drug production centers in the world: the monopoly of Afghanistan in the smuggling of heroin, and South America's, related to cocaine, while the United States and Europe are the first destinations of the drug use on the planet.
The international organized crime, as stated the so-called Russian anti-drug tsar, controls the trafficking of hallucinogens to Africa, Central America and Central Asia, with huge investments and profits of one of the most lucrative businesses, next to the arms sales, smuggling of endangered species, and human trafficking.
Ivanov warned on the occasion of the presentation of the collective monograph "Transnational organized crime and the state of confrontation in Latin America", that the production of cocaine in the region grew 100 times in half a century, from 10 tons in the decade of 1950 up to a 1,030 in 2006.
As for Russia, the head of the Federal Drug Control Service said that the supplies of drugs to his country rose 15-30 percent per year. 1,2 tons of cocaine were confiscated in 2014 alone.
The volume of confiscated synthetic drugs (known here as smoking mixtures) increased by 200 times during the last decade, said Ivanov.

According to the official, these drugs cause adverse effects on the psyche of the consumers, which can lead to death (as attested by statistics) and committing serious crimes such as murder, under the influence of dangerous hallucinogens.

From Communist Gold To Kremlin Power: Spanish Prosecutors Outline Russia's Captive State

Anticorruption campaigner Aleksei Navalny has released a film that accuses Prosecutor-
By Viktor Rezunkov and Robert Coalson

December 17, 2015

ST. PETERSBURG -- Suspicions of connections with organized crime have dogged Vladimir Putin since his stint in the St. Petersburg mayor's office in the early 1990s.
 The accusations have gained new momentum in recent weeks with two important developments. On December 1, opposition politician and anticorruption campaigner Aleksei Navalny released a film expose on Prosecutor-General Yury Chaika and his sons, outlining circumstantial evidence of ties to organized crime and abuse of the prosecutor's office for financial gain.
 The film has garnered more than 3.5 million views and it is becoming increasingly hard for the Kremlin to ignore, despite the fact that Chaika is part of Putin's closest inner circle.
 In November, the journal New Times published a summary of the findingsof a Spanish probe into Russian organized crime that includes claims reaching all the way to Putin himself. The nongovernmental Open Russia organization later published the entire, more than 400-page Spanish prosecutor's report in Russian. The report was submitted in May and a copy reached the media in June.
The Spanish report centers on Gennady Petrov, who is believed to be the head of a prominent ring known as the Tambov organized-crime group, and illuminates his alleged ties to Putin and members of Putin's inner circle that stretch back to their days in St. Petersburg. Petrov got his start as a co-owner of the Bank Rossia in 1998-99, together with close Putin friends Nikolai Shamalov, Viktor Myachin, and Yury Kovalchuk. All three were founding members of the Ozero collective, which was formed in 1996 and included Putin.
 "The criminal organization headed by Petrov managed to achieve a clear penetration of the state structures of his country, not only with the lawmaker [Vladislav] Reznik but with several ministers," the report says.
Telephone Transcripts
The Spanish report includes transcripts of alleged telephone calls between Petrov and other organized-crime suspects in Spain and officials and businesspeople in Russia.
 "From this report, it emerges that it was not Vladimir Putin who placed many people in leading [government] positions, but bandits who were directly connected to the Tambov criminal group," said Andrei Zykov, a retired law-enforcement lieutenant colonel and a former senior investigator for the Northwest Federal District branch of the Investigative Committee who specialized in corruption and serious economic crimes. The district includes St. Petersburg.
 "For example, in 2007 Aleksandr Bastrykin was named head of the Investigative Committee. Gennady Petrov and other members of the gang just call him Sasha," Zykov told RFE/RL -- referring to a short name for Aleksandr that implies a close relationship . "They are constantly on the phone with him. 'Sasha' himself calls Gennady Petrov and thanks not President Putin, but Gennady Petrov for the fact that he was appointed chairman of the Investigative Committee."
 "If such important posts are occupied by people appointed by a criminal group and not President Putin, then it is definitely not clear what is the 'tail' and what is the 'dog' in this situation," Zykov concluded. "Who is really running our government?"
 Zykov said the Spanish prosecutors documented 78 telephone conversations between Petrov and Nikolai Aulov, a senior Russian law-enforcement official who is now the head of the Interior Ministry branch in the Central Federal District. Of those, 74 were initiated by Aulov himself.
 "Gennady Petrov gives orders to General Nikolai Aulov, and he reports back to Gennady Petrov," Zykov said.
Petrov was arrested during a raid on his villa in Majorca in 2008 in a sweep that also netted 20 other suspected members of the Spanish branch of the Tambov gang. However, he was later allowed to travel to Russia and has been living peacefully in St. Petersburg ever since.
 "Today the main figures in the Spanish report are living in Russia without any problems," Zykov said. "And they are doing fine.”
Network Of Companies
He said that Petrov lives in a building in which apartments are also owned by presidential aide Vladimir Kozhin and a pair of brothers who were both members of the Ozero collective -- former Russian Education Minister Andrei Fursenko and his brother Sergei Fursenko, a businessman and official at state-controlled gas giant Gazprom.
 “His son, Anton, is a businessman," Zykov said of Petrov.
 Spanish prosecutors allege that Petrov and 26 other suspects, including some Spanish citizens, created a network of companies and other structures in Spain beginning in the mid-1990s through which hundreds of millions of dollars were allegedly laundered and other criminal activities -- including drugs and arms smuggling -- were carried out.
 One of the suspects named in the report is Vladislav Reznik, a State Duma deputy from the ruling United Russia party and deputy chairman of the Finance Committee in the lower parliament house. He is from St. Petersburg as well, and in 1989-90 he served as deputy chairman of Bank Rossia. He is also the head of the Rus insurance company, which was a founding partner of the bank, together with the Leningrad Oblast branch of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev worked for Reznik at Rus in the mid-1990s.
 Zykov said the Spanish report makes a strong case that Bank Rossia was largely a mechanism for funneling money from the Soviet Communist Party to criminals and figures connected with the Ozero collective.
 "Mr. Reznik is tied to this bank," Zykov said. "Not long before the events of 1991 [the collapse of the Soviet Union], large sums of money were poured into that bank -- about 500 million rubles. The Spanish investigators draw attention to the idea that it is completely possible that Gennady Petrov is living on the money of the Soviet Communist Party. It turns out that all these years we've been looking for the Communist Party's money and we didn't notice Bank Rossia right in front of our noses. And those people who privatized that bank took loans from that very bank in order to buy the shares in that bank. That bank was de facto stolen from the state. Its money ended up in the hands of a criminal organization."
 The Ozero group included eight people: seven businessmen with scientific or engineering backgrounds and Putin, a political figure with a legal education and a background in the KGB.
 "The dawn of the activity of the so-called Tambov group came with the administration of [St. Petersburg Mayor] Anatoly Sochak and his deputy, Vladimir Putin," Zykov said.

 "[St. Petersburg journalist] Nikolai Andrushchenko remembered how at the beginning of perestroika, Anatoly Sobchak was considered an irreproachable liberal professor," Zykov said. "But after he got close to Vladimir Putin and Viktor Zolotov [a former Sobchak bodyguard who is now head of the Interior Ministry's internal forces], Anatoly Sobchak changed. He developed a taste for the luxurious life. He began to make bargains with his conscience."

Several Russian Defense Ministry officials allegedly involved in organized crime

MOSCOW, December 22 (RAPSI) – A criminal case was launched against an organized criminal group that was allegedly operating with the involvement of Russian Defense Ministry officials from the department of government contract audit, the Moscow City Court documents read.
A head of the department, Dmitriy Nedobor, is under investigation. Nedobor is accused of attempting to take a grand bribe; he is currently detained, according to court documents.
Earlier, the Kommersant newspaper reported that Nedobor became a head of the department in January, 2015. Before that he was an employee of the Finance Ministry where he worked for ten years. Nedobor held a position of a head deputy at the military contract budget policy department.
According to Kommersant, military authorities launched a bribery case on October 15 against an organized criminal group that was trying to take bribes. Investigators believe that this group consisted of Defense Ministry officials and criminals from other spheres.
This case was merged with a case against Nedobor. The Moscow City Court upheld the decision of a lower court which placed Nedobor  in detention for two months. On December 10, the detention of Nedobor was extended for three more months.
The department of government contract audit conducts expertize of government contracts’ expenses, sets their prices, analyzes the prices of the bought equipment.

Putin Associate Found Dead in DC Hotel

Mikhail Lesin, the former head of media affairs for the Russian government who’s been accused of curtailing the country’s press freedoms, had been staying at Hotel Dupont when he was found Thursday, according to officials.
It’s unclear why the long-time adviser to Russian President Vladimir Putin was in Washington, but the Metropolitan Police Department is now investigating his death. On Thursday, U.S. authorities notified the Russian embassy in Washington that one of its citizens had died, and Russian officials are now working with American authorities to determine the circumstances of the death, the embassy told ABC News in a statement.
Citing an ongoing investigation, an MPD spokesman would only confirm the department is conducting a “death investigation.“
Lesin is credited with creating Russia Today, the English-language news network backed by the Russian government. Now known as RT, the network “provides an alternative perspective on major global events, and acquaints an international audience with the Russian viewpoint,” according to its website.
Lesin “led the Kremlin’s efforts to censor Russia’s independent television outlets,” one U.S. lawmaker charged last year.
In fact, Sen. Roger Wicker (R-Miss.), called on the Justice Department to launch an investigation into Lesin over allegations of corruption and money laundering.
In a letter to then-Attorney General Eric Holder, Wicker said Lesin had “acquired multi-million dollar assets” in Europe and the United States “during his tenure as a civil servant,” including multiple residences in Los Angeles worth $28 million.
“That a Russian public servant could have amassed the considerable funds required to acquire and maintain these assets in Europe and the United States raises serious questions,” Wicker wrote.
It’s unclear if the FBI ever begun a probe.

From 1999 to 2004, Lesin served as Russia’s Minister of Press, Television and Radio, often traveling with Putin on official trips. In 2013, he became head of Gazprom-Media Holding, the state-controlled media giant that describes itself as one of the largest media groups in Russia and Europe. Lesin resigned the next year, reportedly citing family reasons.

Russian Businessman Detained for $46Bln Money Laundering Scheme

Russian businessman Alexander Grigoryev has been detained amid suspicions of heading a scheme involving dozens of banks and hundreds of people to channel $46 billion out of Russia, the Kommersant business daily reported Tuesday.
Grigoryev — the co-owner of several banks, including the failed Zapadny and Doninvest banks — was detained Friday in a central Moscow restaurant where he was dining with his girlfriend, the report said.
The 44-year-old entrepreneur was denied bail and is being held in detention on two counts of fraud involving a sum of 105 million rubles ($1.6 million), Kommersant reported.
Investigators also suspect Grigoryev, who was at one time vice president of the Moscow Boxing Federation, of leading one of Russia's largest organized crime groups, involving around 60 banks and more than 500 people, the report said.
In the past four years, the ring could have sluiced more than $46 billion abroad through the banks — some of which are partly state owned and some of which were declared bankrupt after Grigoryev became co-owner, the report said.
Some of the failed banks still owe their clients up to 44 billion rubles, the report said.

Grigoryev has denied his guilt, Kommersant reported.

Putin's Mafia Statecraft

By Brian Whitmore
October 27, 2015

In the past couple years, Russian hackers have launched attacks on a French television network, a German steelmaker, the Polish stock market, the White House, the U.S. House of Representatives, the U.S. State Department, and The New York Times.
And according to press reports citing Western intelligence officials, the perpetrators weren't rogue cyber-pranksters. They were working for the Kremlin.
Cybercrime, it appears, has become a tool of Russian statecraft. And not just cybercrime.
Vladimir Putin's regime has become increasingly adept at deploying a whole range of practices that are more common among crime syndicates than permanent members of the UN Security Council.
In some cases, as with the hacking, this involves the Kremlin subcontracting organized crime groups to do things the Russian state cannot do itself with plausible deniability. And in others, it involves the state itself engaging in kidnapping, extortion, blackmail, bribery, and fraud to advance its agenda.
Spanish prosecutor Jose Grinda has noted that the activities of Russian criminal networks are virtually indistinguishable from those of the government.
"It's not so much a mafia state as a nationalized mafia," Russian organized crime expert Mark Galeotti, a professor at New York University and co-host of the Power Vertical Podcast, said in a recent lecture at the Hudson Institute.
Hackers, Gangsters, And Goblins
According to a report by the FBI and U.S. intelligence agencies, Russia is home to the most skilled community of cybercriminals on the globe, and the Kremlin has close ties to them.
"They have let loose the hounds," Tom Kellermann, chief security officer at Trend Micro, a Tokyo-based security firm, told Bloomberg News.
Citing unidentified officials, Bloomberg reported that Russian hackers had stepped up surveillance of essential infrastructure, including power grids and energy-supply networks, in the United States, Europe, and Canada.
Dmitri Alperovitch, co-founder of the security firm CrowdStrike, noted recently that the Russian security services have been actively recruiting an army of hackers.
"When someone is identified as being technically proficient in the Russian underground," a pending criminal case against them "suddenly disappears and those people are never heard from again," Alperovitch said in an interview with The Hill, adding that the hacker in question is then working for the Russian security services.
"We know that’s going on," Alperovitch added.
And as a result, criminal hackers "that used to hunt banks eight hours a day are now operating two hours a day turning their guns on NATO and government targets," Kellermann of Trend Micro told The Hill, adding that these groups are "willingly operating as cyber-militias."
The hacking is just one example of how the Kremlin effectively uses organized crime as a geopolitical weapon.
Moscow relied heavily on local organized crime structures in its support for separatist movements in Transdniester, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, and Donbas.
In the conflict in eastern Ukraine, organized crime groups served as agents for the Kremlin, fomenting pro-Russia unrest and funneling arms to rebel groups.
In annexed Crimea, the Kremlin installed a reputed gangster known as "The Goblin" as the peninsula's chief executive.
And of course there is the case of Eston Kohver, the Estonian law enforcement officer who was investigating a smuggling ring run jointly by Russian organized crime groups and the Russian Federal Security Service.
Kohver was kidnapped in Estonia September 2014, brought across the Russian border at gunpoint, and convicted of espionage. He was released in a prisoner exchange last month.
The Geopolitics Of Extortion
But Putin's mafia statecraft doesn't just involve using and colluding with organized crime groups.
It often acts like an organized crime group itself.
In some cases this involves using graft as a means of control. This is a tactic Moscow has deployed throughout the former Soviet space, involving elites in corrupt schemes -- everything from shady energy deals or money-laundering operations -- to secure a "captured constituency."
This is a tactic Russia attempted to use in Georgia following the 2003 Rose Revolution and in Ukraine after the 2004 Orange Revolution, where "corruption and shadow networks were mobilized to undermine the new leadership's reform agenda," according to James Greene in a 2012 report for Chatham House.
This was particularly successful in Ukraine, where opaque gas deals were used "to suborn Ukraine's post-Orange Revolution new leadership," Greene wrote.
And Putin is clearly hoping to repeat this success in eastern Ukraine today -- especially after elections are held in the rebel areas of Donbas.
"His bet in the eastern Ukraine local election, if it ever takes place, won't be on the rebel field commanders but on local oligarchs who ran the region before the 2014 'revolution of dignity.' Through them, he will hope to exert both economic and political influence on Kiev." political commentator Leonid Bershidsky wrote in Bloomberg View.
In addition to graft, Moscow has also effectively utilized blackmail -- making the international community a series of offers it can't refuse.
It's a neat trick. First you create instability, as in Ukraine, or exasperate existing instability, as in Syria.Then offer your services to establish order.
You essentially create demand -- and then meet it. You get to act like a rogue and be treated like a statesman.
It's how protection rackets operate. And it has become one of the pillars of Putin's foreign policy.
"It’s the geopolitics of extortion, but it’s probably working," Galeotti told Voice of America in a recent interview.
"He’s identifying a whole series of potential trouble spots around the world, places that matter to the West, and is essentially indicating that he can either be a good partner, if they’re willing to make a deal with him, or he can stir up more trouble."

Ex-head of Russia’s Komi Republic to remain in detention

RIA Novosti, Vitaliy Belousov

MOSCOW, October 21 (RAPSI) – The Moscow City Court on Wednesday upheld the detention of Vyacheslav Gaizer, former head of Russia’s  Komi Republic who stands charged with fraud and organized crime related violations, RAPSI reported from the courtroom.
Gaizer will remain in jail until November 18.
Defense lawyer Oleg Lisayev asked the court to place his client under house arrest because Gaizer suffers from several diseases which may result in serious consequences such as infarct, stroke, gastrorrhagia or active gastric ulcer.
Earlier, the Investigative Committee reported terminating the activity of a criminal group led by the head of the Republic of Komi, Vyacheslav Gaizer.
Nineteen people are defendants in the case, including Gaizer’s deputy and Igor Kovzel, Chairman of the Republican State Council, and Konstantin Romadanov, Deputy Chairman of the Komi government.
Gaizer denies the charges. Several high-ranking officials have been arrested in the fraud and organized crime case, as well as several business people that the Investigative Committee called “finance technologists.”
During 80 searches in Komi, St. Petersburg and Moscow, the Investigative Committee and the Federal Security Service confiscated over 60 kg of jewelry, 150 watches worth $30,000 to $1 million each, over 50 stamps and seals from offshore corporations, and financial documents legalizing over 1 billion rubles ($16 mln) in stolen money transferred to the offshore zone.
Investigators have also opened against Gaizer a criminal case on money laundering.

On September 30, President Vladimir Putin signed a decree to relieve Gaizer of his duties because of loss of trust.

Interpol: Cyber Crime from Russia, E. Europe Expands

Sophisticated attacks on banks, handhelds increasing

BY: Bill Gertz 

Cyber crime originating from Russia and Eastern Europe is increasing in both scale and sophistication, according to a senior Italian police investigator.
“The way cyber crime has changed criminality is the biggest challenge for us. It is a huge challenge to face this criminal phenomenon,” said Paolo Sartori, who works with Interpol in Romania against cyber crime in Russia and Eastern Europe.
Cyber crime is even changing the nature of traditional organized crime groups who are using hackers to make fast, relatively easy money.
Sartori, speaking at a cyber security conference in Lugano, Switzerland, outlined the nature of Russian cyber crime activities that are increasingly focusing on the use of malicious software in handheld devices, as well as through cyber extortion and theft of credit card numbers. The two-day conference was hosted by Franklin University Switzerland and KNC consulting.
Authorities also are concerned about the ability of terrorist groups to conduct cyber attacks.
“We are very concerned about attacks against military and civilian infrastructures, denial of service, recruitment, propaganda, training, financing, and operational logistics support to terrorist groups and extremist movements,” Sartori said.
However, cyber crime is exploding as computer and software engineers turn to crime in Eastern Europe, Russia, and many of the former Soviet states where legitimate jobs are scarce and law enforcement and legal systems are ill-equipped to address the problem.
Sartori said six of the top 10 countries that experienced the most Internet fraud were located in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union.
Two new schemes for cyber criminals are cyber extortion and mobile bank account application hacking.
“Cyber extortion is one of the fields they are very, very active,” Sartori said.
In cyber extortion, hackers remotely take over a company computer network and then offer to release the control for a fee that is often less that it would cost the company to have the problem repaired.
“Many firms choose to comply with the demand rather than taking the risk of losing customers,” Sartori said.
Another indicator of the growth of cyber crime is the fact that software Trojans that can break into computer networks have decreased in cost from around $250 several years ago to as little as $50 today.
“This means that many, many criminals are now appearing in the criminal field,” Sartori said.
Cyber criminals also seek to protect their reputations for selling quality stolen products. For example, one group was selling stolen Platinum and Gold MasterCards for $35 each.
Russian hackers also have been successful in breaking into ATM cash machines and having them issue money.
On mobile applications, “originating from Russia we saw a significant increase in the number of mobile applications designed to steal money from bank accounts,” Sartori said. “And the majority of the attacks on bank accounts focused on the Android smart phone.”
Cyber criminals from Eastern Europe also are active in hacking Bitcoin, an untraceable crypto currency used online.
Several recent investigations succeeded in taking down a Ukrainian cyber crime ring that targeted U.S. banks in Puerto Rico and Oman. Stolen data from bank clients was used to clone credit cards.
Another operation busted a Romanian hacker group that carried out more than 34,000 fraudulent bank withdrawals between February and December 2013. A third case involved hackers from Latvia, Romania, and Russia who created a virus the affected over a million computers.
Criminal hackers also are hiring themselves out. The cost to hire a criminal hacker is between $100 and $300 for cyber attacks on business computers. The hackers for hire avoid breaking into government and military computers because it is too dangerous and the profitability is lower.
Sartori said Russian banks and financial institutions that two or three years ago were very difficult to work with investigators in the west appear to be trying to be more open with authorities. Reported losses for Russian banks from cyber attacks reached $68 million, he said, noting that cyber attacks on Russian banks total more than 300,000 operations.
In Russia, authorities estimate about 20,000 people are engaged in cyber crime activities, mainly involving bank fraud, along with cyber extortion schemes, and fake pharmaceutical email scams.
The Russian hackers also are hiring English speakers to sound more credible and to improve communications.
One of the reasons for the rise in cyber crime is the low rate of prosecution and punishment. For example, in Ukraine, of the 400 people arrested for Internet and bank fraud, only eight were convicted.
The region also has a large pool of people with very advanced information technology skills. Cyber criminals “are very well prepared and very well motivated,” Sartori said, noting that some arrests involved catching hackers at universities who were on the way to take exams.
In Russia, the lack of legitimate high-tech jobs is another cause for increased cyber crime rates.
“In Russia and other former Soviet Union and Eastern European economies, top university graduates are reportedly paid by organized crimes up to 10 times more than from legitimate jobs,” he said.
One hacker confessed that hacking remains one of the few good jobs left in Russia.
Additionally, another problem contributing to cyber crime is that hacking is culturally accepted in the east. “It’s not considered a crime in the countries. It’s regarded as just another job,” Sartori said. “There is not a culture to consider these guys as criminals, as robbers, as killers. They are considered professionals as others.”
Police charged with tracking and halting the cyber crime group face difficulties from the small and flexible structure of the crime groups, which can often be as small as five people, operating from different European countries.
“They are organizing very efficient global teams and supply chain management,” Sartori said. “They are very well adapted to global strategies and global collaboration between different groups.”
The wide range of crime activities from the region include email spam, child pornography, fraud and phishing, cyber extortion, disclosure of personal and confidential data, compromise of resources and web defacements, compromise network systems and websites, denial of service, and unlawful e-commerce and services.
Cyber criminals collaborate with counterfeit product makers in China and Asia, as well as in Russia and former Soviet republics.
The use of malware through infected Internet Protocol addresses and URLs is another tool for cyber criminals.
The use of anonymization tools, like Tor, and encryption are making it difficult for authorities to counter the problem.
The combination of operating from several different countries and having a flexible organization makes it “very hard for us to focus on where they are working because they have their headquarters in one country but other people are working in another country. So this is one of the problems that we have,” the Interpol investigator said.
Within cyber crime groups, members are assigned specialized roles, such as creating malware, cracking into networks, handling security credentials, and laundering the proceeds of the crimes.
Like traditional crime groups, cyber criminals conduct predatory operations then leave, often without leaving traces of their activities.
Proceeds from the criminal activities also are not invested in locations where the crimes were committed.
Sartori said authorities in Europe are seeking to increase the specialization of their investigators charged with counter cyber crime and setting up international joint teams.
Last month a Russian man pleaded guilty to cyber crime charges involving attacks on payment processors, retailers, and financial institutions that netted over 160 million stolen credit card numbers.
The hacker, Vladimir Drinkman, admitted to the global hacking activities to U.S. authorities.
The Justice Department said the Drinkman case was the largest hacking case prosecuted in the United States. His crimes cost an estimated loss of $300 million to people and companies.
“Our close cooperation with our international partners makes it more likely every day that we will find and bring to justice cyber criminals who attack America — wherever in the world they may be,” said Assistant Attorney General Leslie Caldwell. “I am confident that this type of international cooperation that led to this result will be the new normal.”
Two other men in the case are being sought by authorities, and a third, Dmitriy Smilianets, has been in federal custody since 2012.

Russian Whistleblower ‘May Have Been Murdered by Spies’, Says Barrister

A Russian whistleblower who died unexpectedly while jogging may have been poisoned by Russian spies with a rare toxin from the gelsemium elegans plant, a pre-inquest hearing was told on Monday.
Perepilichnyy, who reportedly received death threats for blowing the whistle on an alleged multi-million dollar tax fraud scheme by Russian officials, was said to be healthy prior to the incident.
Not long after Perepilichnyy’s death in 2012, lawyers for the investment fund Hermitage Capital Management suggested the supergrass could have been murdered for helping them reveal the story of a stolen multimillion.
Perepilichnyy had worked with Hermitage Capital to expose a group of high-profile Russian tax executives, giving details of US$ 230 million allegedly embezzled in a huge money laundering operation.
A pre-inquest hearing was told Monday that Federal’naya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti (FSB), Russia’s security agency, could have been involved in his death.
Representing Hermitage Capital, Geoffrey Robertson QC told the coroner: “We will not be seeking to put forth any information that is irrelevant.
“A Russian dies in Britain, that is not relevant. If that Russian dies by an obscure poison known only by the FSB, that is relevant.
“The FSB is the core element of Russian Government that was involved in the [Alexander] Litvinenko case and may well be involved in this case. It is a secret service that Hermitage has upset and [has] left itself open to reprisals.”
Barrister Henrietta Hill QC claimed at a previous hearing that Perepilichnyy was on an underworld hit list.
She compared his case to those of Sergei Magnitsky, an auditor for Hermitage Capital who died in police custody, and Alexander Litvinenko, a murdered Russian spy who specialized in tackling organized crime.
Bill Browder, co-founder of Hermitage Capital, told the Guardian he had repeatedly told authorities that Perepilichnyy’s death was suspicious.
Browder claims he had been given unconfirmed reports that a needle puncture was found on Perepilichnyy’s neck.
However, the family of the late businessman has claimed there is no evidence to suggest Perepilichnyy was murdered.
The pre-inquest hearing also heard that tests to confirm substances found in Perepilichnyy’s stomach were still underway.

A further pre-inquest hearing will take place in November and the full inquest is expected to begin, at the earliest, in February of next year. 

The Refugee Crisis Has Produced One Winner: Organized Crime


A migrant family from Syria arriving in a small boat to the Greek island of Kos after crossing a three-mile stretch of the Aegean Sea from Turkey. CreditWin Mcnamee/Getty
IN the midst of the refugee crisis, the European Union has for the first time ever been considering deploying naval assets against organized crime. People smuggling, chiefly from Syria and the Horn of Africa, is now a multibillion-dollar business that is as profitable, if not more so, than the trade in illegal narcotics.
This is not the trafficking of migrant labor or women for sexual purposes. These criminal gangs are effectively offering travel-agent services to desperate people fleeing conflict. Their services can include false documentation, bribes to border guards and transport, in dangerous, often deadly, circumstances.
Sadly, the measures countries are taking to counteract the flood of refugees serve only to make organized crime stronger. As long as European countries fail to implement a plan to take in refugees across member states, the business of people smuggling will continue to grow.
It has been almost a decade since I first argued that organized crime should be seen as a priority for resources above the more emotive issue of combating terrorism. The crisis in Europe demonstrates just how devastating the impact of organized crime can be, through both the exploitation of defenseless refugees and the undermining of legitimate governments at a time when countries on Europe’s periphery are facing daunting economic challenges.
Every day smugglers are extracting huge sums for risky journeys. A recent BBC investigation exposed a group in Turkey charging $1,200 for a place in a rubber dinghy filled with 40 or more people crossing the Aegean from Bodrum to the island of Kos in Greece. Let’s do the math: One entirely dispensable rubber dinghy traveling the 15 miles to Greece nets the gang $48,000. If the boat goes down, they don’t care — they’ve already been paid.
Richer refugees can afford a bespoke package that offers transit all the way from Turkey or Lebanon to a named European Union country. But most have to part with large amounts of cash every stage of the way. Merchants take advantage of the migrants’ desperate situation by charging exorbitant prices for essentials. One researcher from Amnesty International spotted a bottle of water being sold in Presevo, southern Serbia, for $10.
The crisis has breathed new life into well-established criminal groups. Their geographical bases remain the same as they were in the 1990s: Albanians in Kosovo, northern Macedonia and southern Serbia; Greeks in Thessaloniki; Serbs in Belgrade; Bulgarians along their borders with Serbia, Macedonia and Turkey. All maintain close links with Turkish syndicates where refugees often start their journey to the European Union.
The Balkan Peninsula is a mountainous region on the key route between Europe and the Middle East that for centuries was on the fault line where the Austrian, Russian and Ottoman empires met. Local groups there are used to smuggling whatever is in demand — weapons, drugs, women or refugees — and they can adapt with alacrity.
At the moment, the trade has shifted to refugees. This is a labor-intensive operation, and so the syndicates have been furiously recruiting. Europol, the law enforcement body based in The Hague that facilitates cooperation among Europe’s police forces, has registered an astonishing 29,000 individuals in this year alone whom it suspects of involvement in people smuggling inside Europe. There are many more thousands based in Syria itself, Lebanon and across North Africa.
In the past 15 years, Balkan governments have expended huge efforts to reduce the levels of crime and corruption.
Much of this good work now threatens to be undone as the syndicates exploit the chaos on Europe’s periphery to refill their coffers, expand their recruitment and further exert their corrupting influence on governments. In times of instability, criminal structures grow deep roots quickly, which are very tough to remove, especially in struggling economies.
Organized criminal syndicates have changed rapidly since the fall of Communism. They were among the first institutions to exploit globalization to the full. With the expansion of new markets around the world and the emergence of a vast lawless zone for the best part of a decade from Yugoslavia in the west to Russia’s border with China in the east, the 1990s saw a remarkable upturn in the provision of illicit goods and services around the world.
Rob Wainwright, the director of Europol, told me that this has affected “a move away from the traditional family structures of organized crime towards one that is much more multinational.” Add to this the exceptional value of mobile technology and social media networks to criminals, and this renders policing the refugees all but impossible.
This refugee crisis will not go away until a solution to the war in Syria is found, and there is no prospect of that in the near future. So it is imperative in the short term that barriers are brought down. In the last week, borders have been closed, walls built and armed forces deployed. In response, the smuggling groups in the Balkans are simply raising their prices to guide people across the ever more treacherous borders. Meanwhile, the humanitarian situation for all those refugees, whether in Macedonia, Serbia, Croatia or Hungary, reaches crisis levels.
The European Union must agree on and implement a policy for taking refugees across its member states as soon as possible. There are 500 million people in the European Union, and it is perfectly capable of absorbing a further two million, especially since the aging population is already placing immense strains on the Continent’s long-term economic prospects. Many of the refugees from Syria are highly educated and a significant potential asset to the union. Allowing them to stagnate in makeshift camps where despair and criminality are spreading will benefit nobody in the host countries except for those running the underground economy on which the refugees increasingly depend.
The Balkans have come a long way since the wars of the 1990s, but there are still major unresolved political and economic challenges, especially in Bosnia, Kosovo, Serbia, Albania and Macedonia. The longer Europe dithers over its refugee policy, the greater the strain on these countries, not the least being the growing influence of corrupt and criminal structures.
Misha Glenny is the author of “McMafia: A Journey Through the Global Criminal Underworld.”

Russia Charges Head of Oil-Rich Region With Organized Crime

 Eduard Gismatullin Stepan Kravchenko

The governor of Russia’s oil-rich Komi region, was arrested on suspicion of fraud and running an organized criminal group, the second regional leader to be jailed on allegations of corruption this year.
In addition to Governor Vyacheslav Gaizer, 48, investigators said they arrested or are seeking at least 14 top officials and businessmen from the region, accusing them of misusing their positions for personal gain. They worked with the Federal Security Service on more than 80 searches over the weekend, according to a website statement. Gaizer’s lawyer, Oleg Lisayev, said his client denies any connection to the alleged wrongdoing and is cooperating with investigators. If convicted, Gaizer could face up to 25 years in prison, he said.
The sweep in Komi was broader than in previous cases, which typically included only a few officials. The arrests were covered on state television, which highlighted the more than 60 kilograms (132 pounds) of jewelry and 150 watches, valued at $30,000 to $1 million each, that investigators said they seized. They also took documents on the legalization of more than 1 billion rubles ($15 million) of allegedly stolen assets, according to the statement.
“This is an unprecedented case -- they arrested a whole group of officials,” said Alexander Kynev, a specialist on regional politics at the Higher School of Economics in Moscow. “It shows the situation is difficult and they needed to demonstrate that they’re fighting corruption and signal to the elites that they shouldn’t get overconfident in difficult times.”
Corruption Concern
Opinion polls show Russians, facing falling incomes amid recession, are increasingly concerned about corruption as the patriotic euphoria following last year’s annexation of the Ukrainian region of Crimea fades.
Russian authorities have been expanding probes of local government officials from the Far East to the Caucasus region after arresting in March Alexander Khoroshavin, who was the governor of the Sakhalin region, home to an island rich with oil and natural gas in the Sea of Okhotsk, north of Japan. He remains in jail pending trial.
Governors represent a convenient target for the Kremlin, which so far hasn’t imprisoned high-level officials. Russia ranked 136 out of 175 countries in Transparency International’s 2014 ranking of perceived levels of corruption.
Gaizer had won the Kremlin’s backing for re-election in 2014 and led the ruling United Russia party to victory in regional elections this month. Rich in oil, metals and wood, Komi is one of Russia’s wealthiest regions and hadn’t suffered the same funding problems that other, poorer ones had. Among those charged over the weekend were his deputy, as well as the head of the regional legislature and a former senator from the northern region.
“Now the post of governor has become a rather dangerous one. It’s high enough for demonstrating ’a real fight against corruption,’” Andrei Pertsev wrote in a commentary published by the Carnegie Moscow Center. “In addition, the federal clans have started fighting over the regions” as financial resources have grown more scarce, he wrote.
Kremlin officials have repeatedly vowed to crack down on corruption, but previous pushes have yielded few visible results. The pressure arising from a contracting economy and falling oil prices may lead the Kremlin to be more determined this time, at least when it comes to suspects at the level of governors and below, some analysts said.

“This is the second coming of the fight against corruption,” saidValery Fedorov, director of the state-run VTSIOM polling center. “The people rejoice when they see the blood-suckers put behind bars.”